On April 15,Jackie Robinson made his major league debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26, spectators, more than 14, of whom were black.
Early life Family and personal life Robinson was born The paul robeson jackie robinson January 31,into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia. Robinson's mother worked various odd jobs to support the family. With the track and field squad, he won awards in the broad jump. He was also a member of the tennis team.
He was a shortstop and leadoff hitter for the baseball team, and he broke school broad-jump records held by his brother Mack.
On January 25,he was arrested after vocally disputing the detention of a black friend by police. Karl Downs to attend church on a regular basis, and Downs became a confidant for Robinson, a Christian.
Washington, Strode, and Robinson made up three of the team's four backfield players. Although the Army's initial July guidelines for OCS had been drafted as race neutral, few black applicants were admitted into OCS until after subsequent directives by Army leadership.
While at Fort Hood, Robinson often used his weekend leave to visit the Rev. The driver backed down, but after reaching the end of the line, summoned the military policewho took Robinson into custody.
Batesrefused to authorize the legal action,  Robinson was summarily transferred to the th Battalion —where the commander quickly consented to charge Robinson with multiple offenses, including, among other charges, public drunkenness, even though Robinson did not drink.
He had grown used to a structured playing environment in college, and the Negro leagues' disorganization and embrace of gambling interests appalled him. No black man had played in the major leagues since Moses Fleetwood Walker inbut the Boston Red Sox nevertheless held a tryout at Fenway Park for Robinson and other black players on April In the mids, Branch Rickeyclub president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgersbegan to scout the Negro leagues for a possible addition to the Dodgers' roster.
Rickey selected Robinson from a list of promising black players and interviewed him for possible assignment to Brooklyn's International League farm clubthe Montreal Royals. The best was Josh Gibson. I think that's one of the reasons why Josh died so early — he was heartbroken.
Clay Hopperthe manager of the Royals, asked Rickey to assign Robinson to any other Dodger affiliate, but Rickey refused.
As he was not allowed to stay with his teammates at the team hotel, he lodged instead at the home of a local black politician. In Sanford, Floridathe police chief threatened to cancel games if Robinson and Wright did not cease training activities there; as a result, Robinson was sent back to Daytona Beach.
Robinson thus became the first black player to openly play for a minor league team against a major league team since the de facto baseball color line had been implemented in the s.
On April 18,Roosevelt Stadium hosted the Jersey City Giants ' season opener against the Montreal Royalsmarking the professional debut of the Royals' Jackie Robinson and the first time the color barrier had been broken in a game between two minor league clubs.
Although Sandel induced Robinson to ground out at his first at bat, Robinson ended up with four hits in his five trips to the plate; his first hit was a three-run home run in the game's third inning. With Eddie Stanky entrenched at second base for the Dodgers, Robinson played his initial major league season as a first baseman.
The brewing mutiny ended when Dodgers management took a stand for Robinson. Manager Leo Durocher informed the team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra.
I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays.
What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded. Some, notably the St. Louis Cardinalsthreatened to strike if Robinson played, but also to spread the walkout across the entire National League.
The reporter, concerned about protecting Hyland's anonymity and job, in turn leaked it to his Tribune colleague and editor, Stanley Woodwardwhose own subsequent reporting with other sources protected Hyland. After the threat was exposed, National League President Ford Frick and Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler let it be known that any striking players would be suspended.-Robinson's stand made him more popular than Robeson -Robeson took a more radical approach to equality thanRobinson -Robeson spoke well of the Soviet Union, Robinson didnot -Robinson.
The Paul Robeson Dr. Ronald A. Smith, a historian and Professor Emeritus at Penn State University analyzes Jackie Robinson's appearance, and impact before the House Un-American Activities Committee in light of anti-American messages made by the entertainer and former Rutgers University All-American football superstar Paul Robeson.
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The US congressional testimony by Jackie Robinson, the first African-American Major League Baseball player of the modern era, against the famous entertainer and international civil rights activist Paul Robeson, was an American Cold War incident.