Switzerland Nuclear power plants view Active plants See also: Inthe federal authorities decided to gradually phase out nuclear power in Switzerland. Nuclear power accounted for On 23 SeptemberSwitzerland had two more referenda about nuclear power.
Friday, 17 June The Nuclear Spear: Casaba Howitzer When a nuclear technology has been kept classified since the 60s, you know that it is worth looking into. The Casaba Howitzer is one configuration for a nuclear shaped charge, that can concentrate the power of an atom bomb into a narrow cone.
In this post, we'll look at its potential configurations, its advantages and limits, and how it can be applied to both propulsion and warfare. Instead of chemical explosives, an Orion spaceship would use the awesome power of nuclear bombs. As you may already know, the original Orion involved a thick plate of steel, called a 'pusher plate', mounted on suspension arms, that would be struck by a nuclear explosion.
The plate would endure the heat and radiation, while the suspension transferred the plate's momentum to the spaceship.
Orion 10m Propulsion Module Even if the pusher plate only captured a fraction of the energy of the nuclear bombs being used, it would still be a more effective than any chemical rocket. Used together, we could design an Orion spaceship But it would end up being wasteful and nearly impossible to operate in an atmosphere without generating devastating EMPs.
Like all explosions, an atomic detonation is spherical. The pusher plate has a radius of 5m, so with tan, we can calculate a half-angle of This is wasteful, as most of the expensive fissile material does not get used properly.
It would also require very large individual pulse units to produce sufficient acceleration, likely in the megaton range. Megaton-level nuclear detonations produce a lot of fallout, produce enough thermal radiation to damage the spaceship, and most importantly, generate electromagnetic pulses in the upper atmosphere that would disrupt electronic devices.
The Nuclear Shaped Charge The solution was to create a device that directed the energy of a nuclear explosion into a one narrow enough for the pusher plate to capture almost all of it. With a higher percentage of the energy captured, the nuclear pulse units could be made much smaller, cheaper and unlikely to produce harmful EMP.
A simplified representation of a nuclear shaped charge. Note the lack of explosive lenses. A nuclear shaped charge, which became the Orion pulse units, worked in three steps.
They are blocked by the non-fissionable uranium, except for a hole on top. It is the most important part of the design.
The tungsten is plate-shaped so that the plasma produced expands into a thin column. In effect, the tungsten plasma becomes the Orion's propellant. The full deltaV equation for an Orion spaceship is given by: In the original proposal, collimation was 0. It can be improved by using a wider pusher plate, detonating the pulse units closer or using a thinner and wider tungsten plate.
Plasma velocity is the velocity the tungsten travels at. Other Propulsion Through the use of nuclear shaped charges, other nuclear pulse propulsion types have been designed. The simplest of these are larger Orion spaceships. One space battleship proposal gave a mass of tonsanother interstellar concept masses a thousand times that figure.
Medusa nuclear pulse propulsion concept.An objective list of the advantages and disadvantages of many methods of generating electricity. Generation methods considered include: fossil fuels (coal, oil, oil shale, natural gas), biogas, biomass, bio-voltaic, geothermal, hot dry rock, hydro and micro-hydro, nuclear, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, and wind.
The relative advantages and disadvantages of power generation methods in war. This article is well-researched and contains every aspect a balanced geothermal energy pros and cons list should contain. A nuclear power phase-out is the discontinuation of usage of nuclear power for energy production.
Often initiated because of concerns about nuclear power, phase-outs usually include shutting down nuclear power plants and looking towards fossil fuels and renewable energy.. Three nuclear accidents have influenced the discontinuation of nuclear power: the Three Mile Island partial nuclear.
Jun 17, · Project Orion was the nuclear upgrade to the idea of explosive pulse propulsion, first proposed in the late 19th century by the Russian Nikolai Kibalchich (), by German Hermann Ganswindt ().
Instead of chemical explosives, an Orion spaceship would use the awesome power of nuclear Author: Tough SF.
Yet we begin to see the limitations of each system. Point defense systems, railguns, coilguns, conventional guns, or even lasers, are power limited in this exchange.
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