Human Ecology Theory Theories of human interaction should provide a way of making sense of events that have happened in the past, and then allow us to make predictions about what may happen in the future.
Bibliography Introduction Otis Dudley Duncan once wrote about the difficulties defining human ecology and the perspective of human ecology as follows: In this research paper, the author first presents various definitions and approaches of human ecology to illustrate its variant aspects and features.
What Is Human Ecology? For the first several decades after the term was first introduced, there was little agreement among sociologists about its meaning and focus Alihan, ; Gettys, ; Firey, Even to this day, there are an assortment of approaches and orientations.
Freese has noted that the approaches to human ecology mainly differ according to the preferred vantage points of the scholars. He has discussed three orienting perspectives: A Theory of Community Structurewhich to this day is the definitive exposition of the field.
For human populations, this requires examining the ways in which individuals act collectively to achieve more effective use of their habitat Poston and Frisbie, Here are three examples. And, third, the social theorist Manuel Castells has discussed the parallels between Marxian and ecological thinking and has observed that the results obtained by ecology have no more value for establishing a theory of space than a mass of sociocultural correlations There are other examples of the misuse or misunderstanding by social scientists of human ecology.
Some refer to human ecology as studies using spatial rather than individual units of analysis Robinson,as analyses of the physical features of geographic and built-up areas Zorbaugh, ; Suttles,or as the factor analyses of the characteristics of aggregate units, i.
Sociological Human Ecology Human ecology is a field of study grounded in the four referential constructs of population, technology, organization, and environment. The unit of analysis is the human population, circumscribed more or less in a territorial fashion. Its major assumptions are that populations have unit character and integrity, and that properties and attributes of these populations are more than the summation of their component parts Poston and Frisbie, Human ecology is concerned with the organizational aspects of human populations that arise from their sustenance- producing activities.
These activities are necessary for the collective existence of the populations and must be adapted to the changing conditions confronting them. Included are an ever-changing and mediating environment, their technological repertoires, and the size, composition, and distribution of the populations themselves Duncan, ; Frisbie and Poston,a, b; Poston,; Poston and Frisbie, Under what conditions does one form of sustenance structure appear rather than another?
What are the consequences for populations of varying configurations of sustenance-producing activities? The answers lie in the fact that populations survive by virtue of collective organization. Human ecology is concerned with the determinants and consequences of sustenance organization, a consideration, by the way, that addresses the interplay between human ecology and demography.
Thus, it is not surprising that much of the empirical literature of human ecology focuses on demographic applications, a point that will be made more evident below. Human ecology offers demography an aggregate perspective for the analysis of the demographic processes. A fundamental tenet of human ecology is that a population redistributes itself through the vital processes and migration to achieve a balance or equilibrium between its size and life chances Hawley, Hawley noted that human populations will adjust their size through any of the demographic processes to maintain an equilibrium with their sustenance organization.
Organization It is not an overstatement that organization is the fundamental element of the subject matter of human ecology. This is so because it is a social organization that mediates the balance among population size, growth, and distribution and the natural environment upon which it depends Micklin, Human ecology is concerned with the organizational aspects of human populations arising from their sustenance-producing activities Frisbie and Poston, b: In fact, the two broad goals of human ecology are to establish 1 the causes and 2 the consequences of particular characteristics of sustenance organization in human populations Gibbs and Martin, There is major agreement regarding the centrality of organization within human ecology Duncan, ; Hawley, ; Gibbs and Martin, ; Micklin, ; Poston et al.
However, despite its central position in human ecology and in the ecological theory of migration, the idea of sustenance organization was for decades in a primitive state of development both conceptually and empirically. Indeed, most of the research on sustenance organization that ecologists conducted in the s and s treated the concept as if it referred solely to the division of labor.
This occurred even though there was little in the ecological literature to warrant such a limitation. The notion of organization in human ecology is multifaceted. This is sustenance differentiation, i. Sustenance differentiation consists of two elements: A high degree of sustenance differentiation obtains when there are a relatively large number of activities characterizing the population and when the population members are evenly distributed across these activities Gibbs and Poston, Scholars since Durkheim  have included this dimension as a major component of the division of labor.
There are many measures of sustenance differentiation, six of which have been elaborated by Gibbs and Poston Another dimension of sustenance organization is functional interdependence; it can be combined with sustenance differentiation to form the other side of the division of labor Gibbs and Poston, Human Ecology TheoryTheories of human interaction should provide a way of making sense of events that have happened in the past, and then allow us to make predictions about what may happen in .
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Please try again later. Human Ecology: A Theoretical Essay, by Amos Hawley, presents for the first time a unified theory of human ecology by a scholar whose name is virtually synonymous with the discipline.
Focused on the interaction between society and environment, human ecology is an attempt to deal holistically with the phenomenon of human monstermanfilm.com: $ Human ecology is a social science that studies the relationship between man and its environment.
It studies the relationship between human biological factors and the natural environment.
Social ecology studies the relations among natural environment, population, technology and society. Summary to essay on topic "Human Population Ecology" The development of modern society in the West took place along with the interplay of science, technology and economy, which led to advancement of human life and its essence.
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