His name at birth was "Ahmed Shah"; he took the name "Massoud" as a nom de guerre when he went into the resistance movement in From his native Panjshir, his family moved briefly to Herat and then to Kabulwhere Massoud spent most of his childhood. These developments gave rise to an Islamist movement opposed to the increasing communist and Soviet influence over Afghanistan. Kabul University was a centre for political debate and activism during that time.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Country Affects Planning and Management in Urban Areas Essay Sample With reference to examples, assess the degree to which the level of economic development of a country affects planning and management in urban areas.
Planning and management needs to happen in all countries over the world because no matter how different the level of development between countries the problems will be same in urban areas.
These problems that need to be planned and managed in the urban areas of the city are becoming increasingly significant due to the fact that there has been a hug increase in the number of people living in cities worldwide, just over fifty percent of the world are now living in urban areas.
The main reason for this is the huge increase in urbanisation which is defined as an increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. Another reason for this huge increase is the fact that the high income groups are now moving back into the inner city because of redevelopment in some countries, this is known as re-urbanisation.
The main question that needs to be evaluated though is that to what extent does economic development effect the planning and management in urban areas? Within these urban areas the rich and poor tend to locate spatially in different parts of the city. In general those who are most disadvantaged tend to concentrate in the Inner City.
The most pressing problems in the urban areas are; the huge high population density creating an urban doughnut.
The retail sector suffers, shops become boarded up and there is a lack of choice. There is and increase in empty and derelict properties. Many health issues arise due to pollution, damp housing, poor diet etc.
There is a high crime rate including vandalism and graffiti. There is a high unemployment rate as the inflow of people into the cities outweighs the number of job vacancies. In the UK a good example of deprived inner city areas would be in London and the example of how it was managed is the greenwich millenium village, which is an attempt at redevelopment by creating a sustainable community.
It is a ha area of south london that used to belong to an old gasworks so was therefore very contaminated.
This project was to include 5 building phases, phases 1 and 2 were completed by November This project also includes the building of a junior school, health centre, an ecology park. The only problem is that phases 3,4 and 5 are all on hold at the moment due to the recession hitting. The idea was put forward by John Prescott in and the plan was to have a sustainable community in every city in the UK in order to redevelop urban areas.
The Greenwich millennium village is creating a sustainable way of living due to recycled materials and sustainable wood being used to reduce construction waste. It has energy efficient appliances, and the plumbing is water efficient.
South facing windows, solar panels and a large ecology park of 50hs are also included. There is also a large amount of public transport and bike lanes in the GMV in order to reduce car use. However to what extent was it a success?
It was supposed to be completed by but the final 3 phases are on hold. The prices of the housing were actually quite expensive so not really affordable.
It is surrounded by wasteland and detached from the rest of the community.Konstantin und die Literatur — K. M.
Girardet: Konstantin und das Christentum: die Jahre der Facing facts: Ovid’s Medicamina through the looking glass — H. Valladares: The lover as a model viewer: gendered dynamics in Propertius — K.
O’Neill: The lover’s gaze and Cynthia’s glance – xiii + pp. + 10 lám. €. SO4A4 Half Unit Cities and the Environment: Urban Environmental Transitions. This information is for the /18 session.
Teacher responsible. In , Herbert Girardet estimated that London, England has an ecological footprint (area of land needed to support it) some times bigger than the city itself. Add up that effect for every major city in the world and you get an idea of how big an impact urbanization has had.
useless deserts. How serious is the problem? In , former. Envio Facts , Girardet four decades.’ ‘In the 19th and early 20th centuries, urban growth was occurring mainly in the developed nations.
The reason for this was the spread of industrialization and the associated rapid increase in the use of fossil fuels. Edward Girardet, who covered Afghanistan for over three decades, was also in Kabul during the war.
Resistance against the Taliban (–) Map of the situation in Afghanistan in late In the spring , Ahmad Shah Massoud had addressed the European Parliament in Brussels.
because of the new urban-industrial development (Envio Facts , Girardet ). Anyway some capitals are designed and constructed by bureaucrats. The headquarters of the nation's most powerful businesses are commonly based in the capital (ENCARTA ).
the character of municipal and residential architecture.