Background[ edit ] The Hollywood blacklist was rooted in events of the s and the early s, encompassing the height of the Great Depression and World War II. Two major film industry strikes during the s increased tensions between the Hollywood producers and the unions, particularly the Screen Writers Guild. Under then-chairman Martin Dies, Jr. Leech, who named forty-two movie industry professionals as Communists.
Brecht's mother was a devout Protestant and his father a Roman Catholic who had been persuaded to have a Protestant wedding. The modest house where he was born is today preserved as a Brecht Museum. From her, too, came the "dangerous image of the self-denying woman" that recurs in his drama.
Neher designed many of the sets for Brecht's dramas and helped to forge the distinctive visual iconography of their epic theatre. When Brecht was 16, the First World War broke out.
Initially enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his classmates "swallowed by the army". His expulsion was only prevented through the intervention of his religion teacher.
In Brecht's mother died. But the man he learnt most from was the clown Valentin, who performed in a beer-hall. He did short sketches in which he played refractory employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employers and made them look ridiculous.
The employer was played by his partner, Liesl Karlstadt, a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself out and speak in a deep bass voice. Between November and April Brecht made acquaintance with many influential people in the Berlin cultural scene. Brecht changed the spelling of his first name to Bertolt to rhyme with Arnolt.
In while still living in Munich, Brecht came to the attention of an influential Berlin critic, Herbert Ihering: Brecht is a dramatist because his language is felt physically and in the round. Their daughter— Hanne Hiob — —was a successful German actress. Opening night proved to be a "scandal"—a phenomenon that would characterize many of his later productions during the Weimar Republic —in which Nazis blew whistles and threw stink bombs at the actors on the stage.
Decline of a Familyopened at the Deutsches Theater in Octoberbut was not a success. From the very start Provided with every last sacrament: And brandy To the end mistrustful, lazy and content. She continued to work with him after the publisher's commission ran out.
With little to do at the Deutsches Theater, Brecht began to develop his Man Equals Man project, which was to become the first product of "the 'Brecht collective'—that shifting group of friends and collaborators on whom he henceforward depended.
Together the "collective" would go to fights, not only absorbing their terminology and ethos which permeates Man Equals Man but also drawing those conclusions for the theatre as a whole which Brecht set down in his theoretical essay "Emphasis on Sport" and tried to realise by means of the harsh lighting, the boxing-ring stage and other anti-illusionistic devices that henceforward appeared in his own productions.
For us, man portrayed on the stage is significant as a social function. It is not his relationship to himself, nor his relationship to God, but his relationship to society which is central.
Whenever he appears, his class or social stratum appears with him. His moral, spiritual or sexual conflicts are conflicts with society. Erwin Piscator The emphasis on Reason and didacticism, the sense that the new subject matter demanded a new dramatic formthe use of songs to interrupt and comment: Fleischhacker which Piscator's theatre announced in its programme for the —28 season.
It wasn't until his Saint Joan of the Stockyards written between — that Brecht solved it.
From that point on Caspar Neher became an integral part of the collaborative effort, with words, music and visuals conceived in relation to one another from the start.
The principle, a variety of montageproposed by-passing the "great struggle for supremacy between words, music and production" as Brecht put it, by showing each as self-contained, independent works of art that adopt attitudes towards one another.
Brecht formed a writing collective which became prolific and very influential. Elisabeth HauptmannMargarete Steffin, Emil Burri, Ruth Berlau and others worked with Brecht and produced the multiple teaching playswhich attempted to create a new dramaturgy for participants rather than passive audiences.
These addressed themselves to the massive worker arts organisation that existed in Germany and Austria in the s. So did Brecht's first great play, Saint Joan of the Stockyardswhich attempts to portray the drama in financial transactions. Retitled The Threepenny Opera Die Dreigroschenoper it was the biggest hit in Berlin of the s and a renewing influence on the musical worldwide.
One of its most famous lines underscored the hypocrisy of conventional morality imposed by the Church, working in conjunction with the established order, in the face of working-class hunger and deprivation: Erst kommt das Fressen First the grub lit.
It was a personal and a commercial failure.Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (/ b r ɛ x t /; German: ; 10 February – 14 August ), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet. Living in Munich during the Weimar Republic, he had his first successes with theatre plays, whose themes were often influenced by his Marxist .
Bertolt Brecht was born in Augsburg in His father, a Catholic, was a director of a paper company and his mother, a Protestant, was the daughter of a civil servant.
Brecht began to write poetry as a boy, and had his first poems published in at the age of In Brecht enrolled as a /5(4). Bertolt Brecht Testifies Before the House Un-American Activities Committee () in History, Politics, Theatre | November 12th, playwright, and theoretician, Bertolt Brecht—author of such famous works as The Threepenny Opera () and Mother having been denounced by his own sister.
Brecht was criticized by many for his. Ayn Rand's HUAC Testimony The following is a full transcript of the testimony by Ayn Rand before the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities (commonly known as the House Un-American Activities Committee, or HUAC 1) on October 20, The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was created in to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.
Bertolt Brecht: Communism and his HUAC hearings. Bertolt Brecht is a communist in the sense that he believed in the ideals of the political group. Communism is a movement that aims to overthrow order by revolutionary means and to establish a classless society in which all goods are socially owned.