In the article that follows, we will look at how this behavior pattern develops in humans.
Universal ethical principles Principled conscience The understanding gained in each stage is retained in later stages, but may be regarded by those in later stages as simplistic, lacking in sufficient attention to detail.
Pre-conventional[ edit ] The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning.
Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level consists of the first and second stages of moral development and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner.
A child with pre-conventional morality has not yet adopted or internalized society's conventions regarding what is right or wrong but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished.
It is "egocentric", lacking recognition that others' points of view are different from one's own. For example, a child's classmate tries to dare the child to skip school. The child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing to skip school because he would get punished.
Stage two self-interest driven expresses the "what's in it for me" position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in their best interest but understood in a narrow way which does not consider one's reputation or relationships to groups of people.
Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, but only to a point where it might further the individual's own interests. As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a "You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours" mentality.
For the stage two theorist, the world's perspective is often seen as morally relative. An example of self-interest driven is when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore.
The child asks, "what's in it for me? The child is motivated by self-interest to do chores. Conventional[ edit ] The conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults.
To reason in a conventional way is to judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society's views and expectations. The conventional level consists of the third and fourth stages of moral development. Conventional morality is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong.
At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society's norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid, however, and a rule's appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned.
Individuals are receptive to approval or disapproval from others as it reflects society's views. They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations,  having learned that being regarded as good benefits the self.
Stage three reasoning may judge the morality of an action by evaluating its consequences in terms of a person's relationshipswhich now begin to include things like respect, gratitude, and the " golden rule ".
The intentions of actors play a more significant role in reasoning at this stage; one may feel more forgiving if one thinks that "they mean well".
Moral reasoning in stage four is thus beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three.KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Lawrence Kohlberg was a moral philosopher and student of child development. He was director of Harvard's Center for Moral Education.
His special area of interest is the moral development of children - how they develop a .
The Twelve Angry Men is related to Kohlberg’s stages of Moral Reasoning. The first type of moral reasoning introduced is a need to be responsible. All those .
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago  in and expanded upon the theory throughout his life.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality. At the pre-conventional level (most nine-year-olds and younger, some over nine), we don’t have a personal code of morality. Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.
"12 Angry Men And Kohlberg S Stages Of Moral Development" Essays and Research Papers 12 Angry Men And Kohlberg S Stages Of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg conducted research on the moral development of children. Theories of Human Development. They are both distressed by the caregiver’s departure and angry when the caregiver returns.
They are not easily calmed by the caregiver or the stranger, and they feel anxiety with the caregiver due to inconsistent attachment patterns. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development: Kohlberg identified .